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Rhamnus L.
buckthorn

Data Source

Last revised by:
USDA NRCS National Plant Data Team
Curated and maintained by:
USDA NRCS National Plant Data Team
 

Data Documentation

Documentation State Type
Assorted authors. State noxious weed lists for 46 states. State agriculture or natural resource departments. Literature
Iowa Department of Agricultureand Land Stewardship. The Iowa weed law (20 October 2003). Iowa Department of Agriculture & land Stewardship, Iowa. Literature
Brouillet, L., F. Coursol, and M. Favreau. 2006. VASCAN, the Database of Vascular Plants of Canada. Herbier Marie-Victorin, Institut de recherche en biologie végétale, Université de Montréal. AB, BC, MB, NB, NF, NS, ON, PE, QC, SK Literature
Gleason, H.A. 1963. The New Britton and Brown illustrated flora of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. Hafner Publishing Co., Inc., New York. AL Literature
Haynes, R. 1990. A database of the Alabama flora. Unpublished. AL Literature
Kral, R., et al. 2014. Alabama Plant Atlas [online: accessed on 23 December 2014]. AL Literature
Mohr., C. 1901. Plant life of Alabama. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium VI. AL Literature
NCU. Specimen at University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. AL Specimen
Smith, E.B. 1988. An atlas and annotated list of the vascular plants of Arkansas, 2d ed. AR Literature
Tucker, G.E. 1976. A guide to the woody flora of Arkansas. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Arkansas, Fayetteville. AR Literature
1993. Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science. AZ Literature
Abrams, L. 1960. An illustrated flora of the Pacific States. Stanford University Press, Stanford. AZ Literature
Buegge, J.J. Flora of the Santa Teresa Mountains in Graham County, Arizona. AZ Literature
Damrel, D., D.J. Pinkava, and L.R. Landrum. The Phoenix flora. AZ Literature
Kartesz, J.T. 2002. Atlas of the Arizona flora. Unpublished. AZ Literature
Kearney, T., and R.H. Peebles. 1960. Arizona flora with supplement. University of California Press, Los Angeles. AZ Literature
Lehr, J.H. 1978. A catalogue of the flora of Arizona. Desert Botanical Garden, Phoenix. AZ Literature
Little, E.L., Jr. 1971. Atlas of United States trees. Vols. 1-6 plus supplements. Miscellaneous Publication No. 1146. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC. AZ Literature
Rice, K.C. 1994. Vegetation and flora of the Superstition Wilderness Area, Central Arizona. M.S. Thesis. Arizona State University, Tempe. AZ Literature
1975. Sida. AZ, MD Literature
Wolf, C.B. 1938. The North American species of Rhamnus. Rancho Santa Ana Botanical Garden Monograph No. 1. AZ, NC Literature
2000. CalFlora: Information on California plants for education, research and conservation. The CalFlora Database, Berkeley. CA Literature
California Native Plant Society. Inventory of rare and endangered plants. CA Literature
Clifton, G. Plumas County and Plumas National Forest flora (2001 Draft). Unpublished and undated. CA Literature
DeNevers, G. 1985. Pepperwood flora, Pepperwood Ranch Natural Preserve, Sonoma County. Unpublished. California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco. CA Literature
Hickman, J.C. (ed.). 1993. The Jepson manual. University of California Press, Berkeley. CA Literature
Hrusa, G.F. 1996. Private checklist on file at UC Davis Herbarium. Unpublished. CA Literature
Riefner, R.E. 2007. Noteworthy collections. California. Madroño 54: 367-369. CA Literature
Specimen Management System for California Herbaria (SMASCH). CA Literature
Wilken, Dieter. Personal communication. CA Literature
Anonymous. Personal communication to John Kartesz. CA, CT, IA, IL, KY, LA, MD, MI, MS, ND, NE, PA, RI, SD, TN, TX, VA Literature
Hogan, Tim. Personal communication. CO Literature
Johnston, B. 1991. List of Colorado plants. Unpublished. CO Literature
1980. Rhodora. CT Literature
Dowhan, J.J. 1979. Preliminary checklist of the vascular flora of Connecticut (growing without cultivation). State Geological and Natural History Survey of Connecticut, Natural Resources Center, Department of Environmental Protection. Hartford. CT Literature
Magee, D. Flora of New England. Unpublished and undated. CT, MA, ME, NH, RI, VT Literature
Glenn, S.D. (ed.). 2013. New York Metropolitan Flora database. New York Metropolitan Flora Project, Brooklyn Botanic Garden, New York. CT, NJ, NY Literature
McAvoy, W.A., and K.A. Bennett. 2001. The flora of Delaware: An annotated checklist. Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, Dover. DE Literature
McAvoy, William. Personal communication. DE Literature
Tatnall, R.R. 1946. Flora of Delaware and the Eastern Shore. Society of Natural History of Delaware, Lancaster. DE Literature
2001. Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science. IA Literature
Eilers, L.J., and D.M. Roosa. 1991. The vascular plants of Iowa. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City. IA Literature
Steyermark, J.A. 1963. Flora of Missouri. Iowa State University Press, Ames. IA, IL, PA, WI, WV Literature
McGregor, R.L., et al. 1977. Atlas of the flora of the Great Plains. Iowa State University Press, Ames. IA, KS, ND, NE, SD Literature
CIC. Specimen at Albertson College of Idaho, Caldwell, Idaho. ID Specimen
Davis, R. 1952. Flora of Idaho. W.C. Brown Co., Dubuque. ID Literature
ID. Specimen at University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho. ID Specimen
SRP. Specimen at Boise State University, Boise, Idaho. ID Specimen
INVADERS database. ID, MT Literature
Fernald, M.L. 1950. Gray's manual of botany, 8th ed. American Book Company, New York. IL Literature
Illinois Plant Information Network (ILPIN). IL Literature
Mohlenbrock, R.H. 1986. Guide to the vascular flora of Illinois, rev. ed. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale and Edwardsville. IL Literature
Swink, F., and G. Wilhelm. 1994. Plants of the Chicago Region, eds. 1-4. Morton Arboretum, Lisle. IL, IN Literature
Crovello, T.J., C.A. Keller, and J.T. Kartesz. 1983. The vascular plants of Indiana: A computer based checklist. University of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame. IN Literature
Deam, C.C. 1940. Flora of Indiana. Wm.B. Burford Printing Co., Indianapolis. IN Literature
1998. Sida. KS Literature
Campbell, J., and M. Medley. 2012. The atlas of vascular plants in Kentucky. KY Literature
Campbell, Julian. Personal communication. KY Literature
Medley, M.E. 1993. An annotated catalogue of the known or reported vascular flora of Kentucky. University of Louisville, Louisville. KY Literature
Thomas, R.D., and C.M. Allen. 1993. Atlas of the vascular flora of Louisiana, vols. 1-3. Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries. Natural Heritage Program, Fort Worth, TX. LA Literature
Thomas, R.D., and C.M. Allen. 1997. Atlas of the vascular flora of Louisiana, vols. 1-3 (Plus updates). Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries. Natural Heritage Program, Baton Rouge. LA Literature
Cullina, M.D., B. Connolly, B. Sorrie, and P. Somers. 2011. The vascular plants of Massachusetts: A county checklist, first revision. Massachusetts Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program, Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife, Westborough. MA Literature
Sorrie, B.A. 1992. County checklist of Massachusetts plants. Unpublished. MA Literature
Brown, R.G., and M.L. Brown. 1972. Woody plants of Maryland. Port City Press, Inc., Baltimore. MD Literature
Knapp, W.M., R.F.C. Naczi, W.D. Longbottom, C.A. Davis, W.A. McAvoy, C.T. Frye, J.W. Harrison,and P.Stango. 2011. Floristic discoveries in Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia. Phytoneuron 2011-64: 1-26. MD Literature
Shetler, S.G., and S.S. Orli. 2000. Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of the Washington-Baltimore Area. Part 1: Ferns, fern allies, gymnosperms, and dicotyledons. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. MD Literature
Richards, C.D., F. Hyland, and L.M. Eastman. 1983. Revised check-list of the vascular plants of Maine. Bulletin of the Josselyn Botanical Society, No. 11. ME Literature
1919. Torreya. MI Literature
Voss, E.G. 1985. Michigan flora. Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bloomfield Hills. MI Literature
1999. University of Minnesota Herbarium: Vascular plant collection. MN Literature
Ownbey, G.B., and T. Morley. 1991. Vascular plants of Minnesota: A checklist and atlas. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis. MN Literature
Simpkins, Deb. 26 October 2007. Field observation validated by NPDC staff. MN, OH Observation
Weber, W.R., and W.T. Corcoran. 1993. Atlas of Missouri vascular plants. Unpublished. Southwest Missouri State University and the Missouri Native Plant Society. MO Literature
Yatskievych, G., and J. Turner. 1990. Catalogue of the flora of Missouri. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 37. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis. MO Literature
Mississippi Natural Heritage Program. MS Literature
Wieland, R.G. 2004. County records of Mississippi collections (#5501-9869, 9/12/89 to 1/23/04) deposited at Mississippi Museum of Natural Science Herbarium (MMNS). Mississippi Museum of Natural Science, Department of Wildlife, Fisheries and Parks, Jackson. MS Literature
Booth, W.E., and J.C. Wright. 1966. Flora of Montana. Montana State University, Bozeman. MT Literature
Dorn, R.D. 1984. Vascular plants of Montana. Mountain West Publishers, Cheyenne. MT Literature
Weakley, A.S. 1996. Flora of the Carolinas and Virginia. Unpublished. NC Literature
Seymour, F.C. 1969. The flora of New England. Charles E. Tuttle Company, Rutland. NH Literature
Hough, M.Y. 1978. New Jersey Wild Plants. Harmony Press, Harmony. NJ Literature
Meyer, J. 1990. Chrysler Herbarium Checklist. Manuscript. NJ Literature
Clemants, Steven. Personal communication. NJ, NY Literature
Heil, K.D, and S.L. O'Kane, Jr. 2002. Catalog of the Four Corners flora - vascular plants of the San Juan River Drainage: Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico and Utah, 6th ed. NM Literature
Martin, W.C., and C.R. Hutchins. 1980. A flora of New Mexico. Strauss & Cramer, Germany. NM Literature
NMC. Specimen at New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico. NM Specimen
New Mexico Natural Heritage Program. NM Literature
Kartesz, J.T. 1988. A flora of Nevada. University of Nevada, Reno. NV Literature
Kartesz, J.T. 2001. Atlas of the Nevada flora. Unpublished. NV Literature
Mitchell, R.S. (ed.). 1986. A checklist of New York State plants. Contributions of a Flora of New York State, Checklist III. New York State Bulletin No. 458. New York State Museum, Albany. NY Literature
New York Flora Association. 1990. Preliminary vouchered atlas of New York State flora, ed. 1. New York State Museum Institute, Albany. NY Literature
1999. Castanea. OH Literature
Braun, E.L. 1961. The woody plants of Ohio. Ohio State University Press, Columbus. OH Literature
Cooperrider, T.S. 1982. Endangered and threatened plants of Ohio. Ohio Biological Survey Notes No. 16. Ohio State University, Columbus. OH Literature
Cooperrider, T.S. 1995. The Dicotyledoneae of Ohio. Part 2: Linaceae through Campanulaceae. Ohio State University Press, Columbus. OH Literature
Vincent, Micheal A. Personal communication. OH Literature
Weishaupt, C.G. 1971. Vascular plants of Ohio. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co., Dubuque. OH Literature
Taylor, R.J., and C.E.S. Taylor. 1989. An annotated list of the ferns, fern allies, gymnosperms and flowering plants of Oklahoma. Southeast Oklahoma State University. OK Literature
EOSC. Specimen at Eastern Oregon University, Lagrande, Oregon. OR Specimen
Oregon Natural Heritage Program. OR Literature
Peck, M.E. 1961. A manual of the higher plants of Oregon, 2nd ed. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis. OR Literature
Straw, R. Jackson and Josephine County checklist. Unpublished and undated. OR Literature
Rhoads, A.F., and W.M. Klein, Jr. 1993. The vascular flora of Pennsylvania. Annotated checklist and atlas. American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia. PA Literature
Wherry, E.T., J.M. Fogg, and H.A. Wahl. 1979. Atlas of the flora of Pennsylvania. Morris Arboretum, Philadelphia. PA Literature
George, G.G. 1992. A synonymized checklist of the plants found growing in Rhode Island. Rhode Island Wild Plant Society. RI Literature
2000. Castanea. TN Literature
Chester, E.W, B.E. Wofford, and R. Kral. 1997. Atlas of Tennessee vascular plants. Vol. 2. Miscellaneous Publication No. 13. Austin Peay State University, Clarksville. TN Literature
Chester, E.W., B.E. Wofford, R. Kral, H.R. DeSelm, and A.M. Evans. 1993. Atlas of Tennessee vascular plants. 2 vols. Center for Field Biology Miscellaneous Publication No. 9/13. Austin Peay State University, Clarksville. TN Literature
Estes, D. 2004. Noteworthy collections: middle Tennessee. Castanea 69: 69-74. TN Literature
Sharp, A.J., R.E. Shanks, J.K. Underwood, and E. McGilliard. 1960. A preliminary checklist of monocots in Tennessee. Published by authors, University of Tennessee, Knoxville. TN Literature
Hatch, S.L., K.N. Gandhi, and L.E. Brown. 1990. Checklist of the vascular plants of Texas (MP-1655). Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, College Station. TX Literature
TEX. Specimen at University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas. TX Specimen
TEX. Specimen at University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas. TX Specimen
Shultz, Leila M. Personal communication. UT Literature
Welsh, S.L., N.D. Atwood, L.C. Higgins, and S. Goodrich. 1987. A Utah flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs No. 9. Brigham Young University Press, Provo. UT Literature
Domangue, B.E., and C.K. McMullen. 2013. Floristic survey of the vascular plants of Shenandoah County, Virginia. Castanea 78: 312-322. VA Literature
Harvill, A.M., C.E. Stevens, and D.M.E. Ware. 1981. Atlas of the Virginia flora, Part II. Dicotyledons. Virginia Botanical Associates, Farmville. VA Literature
Virginia Division of Natural Heritage. VA Literature
Atwood, J.T., et al. 1973. Check list of Vermont plants. Vermont Botanical and Bird Club. VT Literature
St. John, H. 1963. Flora of southeastern Washington and adjacent Idaho, 3rd ed. Outdoor Pictures, Escondido. WA Literature
WS. Specimen at Washington State University, Pullman, Washington. WA Specimen
WTU. Specimen at University of Washington, Seattle, Washington. WA Specimen
Reed, R. 1987. Wisconsin vascular plants. Unpublished. WI Literature
Wisconsin Natural Heritage Program. WI Literature
Wisconsin vascular plants. Wisconsin State Herbarium: University of Wisconsin - Madison. WI Literature
Bartgis, Rodney L. Personal communication. WV Literature
Strausbaugh, P.D., and E.L. Core. 1977. Flora of West Virginia, 2nd ed., 4 vols. West Virginia Bulletin, Morgantown. WV Literature
West Virginia county level data. WV Literature
Dorn, R.D. 1977. Manual of the vascular plants of Wyoming. 2 vols. Garland Publishing, Inc., New York. WY Literature
Hartman, R. Atlas of the vascular flora of Wyoming. Unpublished and undated. WY Literature
 
 
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