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Citation and Acknowledgements

Please cite the PLANTS Database as:

USDA, NRCS. 2021. The PLANTS Database (, 10 April 2021). National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA.


Taxonomic Checklist Data Contributors:

John Kartesz, Biota of North America Program, provided the foundational U.S. vascular plant checklist, state and county distribution, and the original duration, growth habit, and native status data used in PLANTS.  NRCS is pleased to have significantly funded BONAP and supported the development of this critical land management information from 1990 until 2006.  Luc Brouillet (Université de Montréal) and Canadian colleagues generously donated Canadian vascular plant names with distribution and attributes in 2006. Vascular data—especially native status and scientific name authorities and orthography—have since been partially revised by Mark Skinner, former NPDT employee, and will continue to be revised internally and by external specialists for the foreseeable future.

Robert Egan (U. Nebraska at Omaha) and Theodore Esslinger (North Dakota State University) provided the North American lichen checklist, which is periodically published in The Bryologist.

Lewis Anderson and Molly McMullen of Duke University provided the original North American moss checklist, and it was updated by Marshall Crosby of the Missouri Botanical Garden.

Ray Stotler and Barbara Crandall-Stotler of Southern Illinois University, Carbondale provided the North American liverwort and hornwort checklists.

Checklist higher taxonomy was developed by Mark Skinner and Deiter Wilken.


Other Data Development:

Alternative Crops
National Plant Data Team staff maintain this information.

NRCS staff developed this information, and it was supplemented by the USGS Wetland Research Center.

Culturally Significant
Kat Anderson developed this information.

Fact Sheets & Plant Guides
Authors are indicated on each of the documents available at Fact Sheets & Plant Guides.

Image Gallery
Our many fine photographers are listed at the Gallery in the “Select by Artist” search box. 

Legal Status
These lists (Introduced, Invasive, and Noxious Plants, Threatened & Endangered, and Wetland Indicator Status) are developed by various state and federal agencies. 

Plant Materials Publications
Authors are indicated on each of the documents available at Plant Materials Publications.

PLANTS Identification
Stinger Guala wrote SLIKS, the digital plant key that PLANTS Identification uses, and manages development of PLANTS identification keys. We thank the data compilers acknowledged on the individual keys, especially David Bogler at the Missouri Botanical Garden.


Programming and Management:

The Information Technology Center leads development for NRCS plant-related computer applications. The ITC coordinates work on plant-related software at the USDA, performed by USDA Office of Enterprise Applications Services in Fort Collins Colorado..